Saturday, June 15, 2024

Brain Hormones And Their Functions

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Which Hormones Does The Pituitary Gland Make

Endocrine System

The anterior lobe of your pituitary gland makes and releases the following hormones:

  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone : ACTH plays a role in how your body responds to stress. It stimulates your adrenal glands to produce cortisol , which has many functions, including regulating metabolism, maintaining blood pressure, regulating blood glucose levels and reducing inflammation, among others.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone : FSH stimulates sperm production in people assigned male at birth. FSH stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen and plays a role in egg development in people assigned female at birth. This is known as a gonadotrophic hormone.
  • Growth hormone : In children, growth hormone stimulates growth. In other words, it helps children grow taller. In adults, growth hormone helps maintain healthy muscles and bones and impacts fat distribution. GH also impacts your metabolism .
  • Luteinizing hormone : LH stimulates ovulation in people assigned female at birth and testosterone production in people assigned male at birth. LH is also known as a gonadotrophic hormone because of the role it plays in controlling the function of the ovaries and testes, known as the gonads.
  • Prolactin: Prolactin stimulates breast milk production after giving birth. It can affect fertility and sexual functions in adults.
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone : TSH stimulates your thyroid to produce thyroid hormones that manage your metabolism, energy levels and your nervous system.

Factors That Promote The Production Of Happiness Hormones

1. Exercise

Exercise not only keeps us fit and healthy, but also protects us from disease and degeneration. It stimulates the production of various hormones, including:

  • Growth hormones that are crucial to repair and growth.
  • Testosterone, which helps to refresh and reinvigorate the body and aids muscle growth.
  • Insulin and thyroid hormones that help to regulate blood glucose levels and aid metabolism.

Additionally, exercise can assist the brain in producing hormones associated with happiness, such as:

  • Dopamine, the hormone responsible for making us feel good. If we are able to achieve our body shape or weight goals, this hormone will be produced in greater quantities.
  • Serotonin, which can help reduce the symptoms of depression.
  • Endorphins, which are directly related to happiness, meaning they can help to reduce physical pain or symptoms of injury in our muscles due to its chemical properties being similar to morphine, which is used for pain relief.

2. Partaking in fulfilling activities that leave a smile on your face

Visiting new places, getting a relaxing massage, or partaking in activities that leave a smile on your face, whether they involve family members, friends or loved ones, can all provide a welcome relief from the stress and problems that may accumulate in our daily lives. Furthermore, keeping a smile on your face when encountering difficult circumstances can aid the bodys production of serotonin and endorphins, both of which are directly associated with happiness.

What Are The Hormones Of The Hypothalamus

Some of the most important hormones produced in the anterior region of the hypothalamus include:

  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone . CRH is involved in the bodys response to both physical and emotional stress. It signals the pituitary gland to produce a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone . ACTH triggers the production of cortisol, an important stress hormone.
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone . Production of GnRH causes the pituitary gland to produce important reproductive hormones, such as follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone .
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone . Production of TRH stimulates the pituitary gland to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone . TSH plays an important role in the function of many body parts, such as the muscles, heart, and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Somatostatin. Somatostatin works to stop the pituitary gland from releasing certain hormones, including growth hormones and TSH.
  • Oxytocin. This hormone controls many important behaviors and emotions, such as sexual arousal, trust, recognition, and maternal behavior. Its also involved in some functions of the reproductive system, such as childbirth and lactation. Learn more about oxytocin.
  • Vasopressin. Also called antidiuretic hormone , vasopressin regulates water levels in the body. When vasopressin is released, it signals the kidneys to absorb water.

When the hypothalamus does not work properly, its called hypothalamic dysfunction.

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Three Modes Of Action Of Neuropeptides

When considering the actions on neurones of neuropeptides released from neurones in the brain, we can recognise three common modes of action. Neuropeptides act as autoregulators of neuronal activity, as paracrine regulators of aggregated populations of neurones, and as neurohormonal regulators of distant populations of neurones.

Patterns Of Gene Regulation

The Hypothalamus on emaze

A whole-brain transcriptome analysis showed that the gene expression difference between males and females changes over the lifetime and that the greatest expression divergence occurs during the perinatal and peripubertal periods.61 Duclot and Kabbaj62 used RNA sequencing for a genome-wide characterization of sex differences and estrus cycle influence in the rat medial PFC. They found that the transcriptomal difference between females with high and low ovarian hormone levels was greater than the difference between both female conditions and males. Thus, endogenous fluctuation of gonadal hormones may induce alternative gene networks within the same sex. In nucleus accumbens, male and female mice exposed to the same stressors display different transcriptional regulation, and the transcriptional phenotype of the nucleus accumbens predicts the increased behavioral susceptibility to stress in females versus males.63

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What Are The Parts Of The Pituitary Gland

Your pituitary gland has two main parts, or lobes: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. Each lobe has different functionality and different types of tissue.

The anterior pituitary, the larger of the two lobes, consists of hormone-secreting epithelial cells and is connected to your hypothalamus through blood vessels.

The posterior pituitary consists of unmyelinated secretory neurons and is connected to your hypothalamus through a nerve tract.

Plasticity Of The Adult Brain

Long regarded as a rather static and unchanging organ, except for electrophysiological responsivity, such as long-term potentiation,16 the brain has gradually been recognized as capable of undergoing rewiring after brain damage17 and also able to grow and change, as seen by dendritic branching, angiogenesis, and glial cell proliferation during cumulated experience.18,19 More specific physiological changes in synaptic connectivity were also recognized in relation to hormone action in the spinal cord20 and in environmentally directed plasticity of the adult songbird brain.21 Seasonally varying neurogenesis in restricted areas of the adult songbird brain is recognized as part of this plasticity.22 Indeed, neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain was initially described23,24 and later rediscovered in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.25 Although the existence of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system was doubted by some,26 recent evidence clearly proves that the human hippocampus shows significant neurogenesis in adult life.27

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Can A Person Live Without A Pineal Gland

Yes, you can live without your pineal gland. However, your body may have a difficult time with sleeping patterns and other physiologic functions related to the circadian rhythm without a pineal gland due to a lack of melatonin.

In very rare cases, a person with a pineal tumor may need surgery to remove their pineal gland. This is known as a pinealectomy.

What Are The Symptoms Of Pituitary Gland Problems

Endocrine System, Part 1 – Glands & Hormones: Crash Course Anatomy & Physiology #23

Large pituitary adenomas , which are benign tumors that develop on your pituitary gland, can put pressure on or damage nearby tissues. This can cause the following symptoms:

  • Vision problems .
  • Hormonal imbalances from pituitary hormone excess or deficiency.

Pituitary hormone imbalances can cause many different symptoms depending on which hormone is affected, including:

  • A lack of growth or excess growth in children.
  • Male and female infertility.

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What Does The Pituitary Gland Do

First, it helps to understand the pituitary gland.

The master gland: The pituitary gland is about the size of a pea. It sits at the base of the brain, roughly behind the bridge of your nose. Its often called the master gland because it produces several hormones and controls other glands, such as the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands.

Part of the endocrine system: The pituitary gland is part of the endocrine system, the bodys hormone system. Hormones are natural chemicals, circulated mostly in the bloodstream, that guide everything from growth to fertility.

Anatomy: The pituitary has two parts, an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe. Each lobe releases different hormones. The pituitary gland is attached to the bottom of the hypothalamus, a part of the brain that connects the nervous system and endocrine system. The hypothalamus releases hormones, and it signals the pituitary gland to release hormones.

Why Would A Neurotransmitter Not Work As It Should

Several things can go haywire and lead to neurotransmitters not working as they should. In general, some of these problems include:

  • Too much or not enough of one or more neurotransmitters are produced or released.
  • The receptor on the receiver cell isnt working properly. The otherwise normal functioning neurotransmitter cant effectively signal the next cell.
  • The cell receptors arent taking up enough neurotransmitter due to inflammation and damage of the synaptic cleft .
  • Neurotransmitters are reabsorbed too quickly.
  • Enzymes limit the number of neurotransmitters from reaching their target cell.

Problems with other parts of nerves, existing diseases or medications you may be taking can affect neurotransmitters. Also, when neurotransmitters dont function as they should, disease can happen. For example:

  • Not enough acetylcholine can lead to the loss of memory thats seen in Alzheimers disease.
  • Too much serotonin is possibly associated with autism spectrum disorders.
  • An increase in activity of glutamate or reduced activity of GABA can result in sudden, high-frequency firing of local neurons in your brain, which can cause seizures.
  • Too much norepinephrine and dopamine activity and abnormal glutamate transmission contribute to mania.

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Endocrine Glands And Their Hormones

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The hormonal system has various glands that release different hormones.

Hormones are like the bodys communication system. They take messages from one part of the body to tell another part of the body to do something important. The endocrine glands influence reproduction, metabolism, growth and many other functions.

Below is a list of the main glands , some of the hormones they produce and what effects they have on the body.

Hypothalamus: an area in the base of the brain that links the brain to the hormonal system.

  • major hormones anti-diuretic hormone , oxytocin, dopamine, corticotrophin releasing hormone, thyrotrophin releasing hormone , gonadotrophin releasing hormone , growth hormone releasing hormone and somatostatin
  • influences they hypothalamus links the hormonal and nervous systems. Its hormones keep the body stable. They influence sleep rhythms, alertness, appetite, body weight, thirst, blood pressure, heart rate, sex drive, learning, memory, mood and how the body responds to being sick

Pituitary gland: a kidney bean-shaped gland in the base of the brain.

What Hormones Does My Hypothalamus Produce

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There are two sets of nerve cells in the hypothalamus that produce hormones. One set of cells sends the hormones they produce down through the pituitary stalk to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland where these hormones are released directly into the bloodstream. These hormones are anti-diuretic hormone and oxytocin. Anti-diuretic hormone regulates the amount of fluid in the body and causes water reabsorption at the kidneys thus preventing dehydration. Oxytocin stimulates contraction of the uterus in childbirth and is important in breastfeeding.

The other set of nerve cells produces stimulating and inhibiting hormones that reach the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland via a network of blood vessels that run down through the pituitary stalk. These regulate the production of hormones that control the gonads, thyroid gland and adrenal cortex, as well as the production of growth hormone, which regulates growth, and prolactin, which is essential for milk production. The hormones produced in the hypothalamus are corticotrophin-releasing hormone, dopamine, growth hormone-releasing hormone, somatostatin, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone.

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Conflict Of Interest Statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The handling editor is currently co-organizing a Research Topic with one of the authors PV, and confirms the absence of any other collaboration.

Estradiol Progesterone And Neurotransmitters

Neurosteroids participate in the regulation and modulation of neurotransmitter systems and neuronal excitability. We will briefly describe the main role of four main neurotransmitters: glutamate, gamma-Aminobutyric acid , serotonin , and dopamine as well as some mechanisms through which estradiol, progesterone, and their metabolites act at the synaptic level .

i. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and glutamatergic synapses can be found from the prefrontal cortex to brainstem areas, striatum, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, hypothalamus, and hippocampus . It is involved in cognitive processes such as memory and learning .

ii. GABA is the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain . GABAergic synapses are found in the striatum, substantia nigra, brainstem, thalamus, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Since it has a fundamental role in balancing brain cell activity, alterations in these pathways can cause anxiety. Inversely, the potentiation of its synapses causes anxiolysis, as in the case of benzodiazepines. GABA also contributes to motor control and diminishes neuronal firing rates in the CNS .

iv. Dopamine is known as the reward neurotransmitter, regulating pleasure, addiction, decision making, motivation, motor control , and learning . Dopaminergic areas include the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, substantia nigra, striatum, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland .

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Sex Differences In Cerebellum

The cerebellum is responsive to estrogens, generates both estradiol and progesterone during its development, and in humans is implicated in disorders that show sex differences.78,79 Estrogens direct the growth of dendrites in the developing cerebellum and regulate both excitatory and inhibitory balance, affecting not only motor coordination but also memory and mood regulation.79 The cerebellum is involved in associative learning processes of conditioned anticipatory safety from pain and mediates sex differences in the underlying neural processes.80

The Longest Study Into Happiness Ever Carried Out

Neurology | Hypothalamus Anatomy & Function

Research into what makes a happy life, presented by Robert Waldinger from Harvard University, took over 75 years to complete and looked at the lives of 724 volunteers, as well as their partners and other family members, bringing the total number of people studied to over 2,000. After analyzing the data, a clear correlation was found between strong relationships, good health and happiness.

Maintaining positive relationships was also found to help people slow the aging process and enable them to live longer lives.

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When Should I Call My Doctor

Some symptoms can point to a serious health condition, such as diabetes. Call your provider if you have:

  • The urge to urinate a lot.
  • Extreme thirst, even after youve had plenty of water.
  • Nausea or stomach pain that doesnt go away.
  • Sudden weight loss or unexplained weight gain.
  • Severe exhaustion or weakness.
  • Problems with sweating too much.
  • Sudden episodes of rapid heart hearts or elevated blood pressure
  • Developmental or growth delays.

Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.

The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

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Anatomy Of The Endocrine System

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs. It uses hormones to control and coordinate your body’s metabolism, energy level, reproduction, growth and development, and response to injury, stress, and mood. The following are integral parts of the endocrine system:

How Do Medications Affect The Action Of Neurotransmitters

Pituitary. Control of the Pituitary. Tumors of the Pituitary ...

Scientists recognized the value and the role of neurotransmitters in your nervous system and the importance of developing medications that could influence these chemical messengers to treat many health conditions. Many medications, especially those that treat diseases of your brain, work in many ways to affect neurotransmitters.

Medications can block the enzyme that breaks down a neurotransmitter so that more of it reaches nerve receptors.

  • Example: Donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine block the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. These medications are used to stabilize and improve memory and cognitive function in people with Alzheimers disease, as well as other neurodegenerative disorders.

Medications can block the neurotransmitter from being received at its receptor site.

  • Example: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are a type of drug class that blocks serotonin from being received and absorbed by a nerve cell. These drugs may be helpful in treating depression, anxiety and other mental health conditions.

Medications can block the release of a neurotransmitter from a nerve cell.

  • Example: Lithium works as a treatment for mania partially by blocking norepinephrine release and is used in the treatment of bipolar disorder.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

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Hormones And Brain Function

Most people understand changes in hormones can cause changes in brain function. These changes most often affect a persons mood and libido, but hormones vastly impact the metabolic function and brain. When the topic of hormones is mentioned, many people only think about estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. But many other hormones, such as cortisol, thyroid hormone, DHEA, and insulin just to name a few influence our brains. Hormones are involved in neurochemistry, neurotransmitters, and neuroinflammation. They also control and regulate many functions in the brain. An important note is the brain sends signals that tell your body when to produce hormones and how much to produce. This brain/body interplay is seen daily in how we interact with others and our environment. When disruption of this interplay takes place, it affects our relationship with others, the ability to focus, development, and the aging process.

When hormonal imbalance occurs, people often describe symptoms such as brain fog, migraines, decreased sleep, decreased memory, depression, and anxiety. Finding the cause of hormonal imbalance can be difficult and often involves a long list of possibilities to choose from. The cause of hormonal imbalances can range from stress, infections, liver dysfunction, or gut dysfunction to dysglycemia. The big picture is that everything can influence hormones, and hormones affect every cell in the body.



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