Severe Nausea Diarrhea And/or Vomiting
Although rare, propranolol can potentially cause severe nausea, vomiting and diarrhea in some people. These symptoms are often associated with an overly high dose of propranolol.
As with other serious side effects of propranolol, if you experience severe nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, you should contact your healthcare provider as soon as possible.
Causes Of Shortness Of Breath In Older Adults
One of the main causes of shortness of breath in the elderly is a condition that is called COPD, which stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COPD can be caused by multiple risk factors, and it is a combination of two separate conditions, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema.
This condition causes progressive damage to the lungs and it become difficult for a person to take deep or even normal breaths when trying to breathe.
People who run the greatest risk of suffering from COPD are chronic smokers and people who might inhaled second hand smoke for a good portion of their lives, as well as those exposed to harmful substances in their work life, like asbestos.
Some of the main symptoms of this condition are persistent coughing, phlegm and chest infections.
Heart conditions can also cause a person to experience a shortness of breath.
There are also numerous other medical conditions that affect the lungs directly that can cause shortness of breath.
Some of these include bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension, Interstitial Lung Disease, sarcoidosis, and COVID-19.
The elderly might also experience breathing problems when they have to much exercise in their everyday lives. Elderly people should stay moving about and not be sedentary, but they are not as vital anymore and cannot expose their bodies to overexertion or more strain than their bodies are able to take.
Coping With Shortness Of Breath From Anxiety
Those that are experiencing severe shortness of breath may still want to see a doctor. Shortness of breath is a common effect of anxiety, but only a medical professional can give you an accurate diagnosis. For those whose shortness of breath is caused by anxiety, you’ll need to take two approaches:
- Short term coping.
- Long term coping.
In the short term, you’ll need to recognise that you may be hyperventilating and try to consciously avoid the temptation to over-breathe. During an panic attack, you may simply need to wait it out – they generally peak after 10 minutes and subside soon after. Traditionally breathing into a paper bag was suggested, but there are other more successful ways that you can control your breathing. You can try the following:
Shortness of breath, when related to anxiety, will go away once your breathing returns to a normal rate. If you can control overcompensating by trying to get too much air, you should be able to get your breathing to feel natural again.
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Does Melatonin Have Any Side Effects
A few studies have investigated the safety of melatonin, but none have revealed any serious side effects. It also doesnt seem to cause any dependence or withdrawal symptoms .
Nonetheless, some medical practitioners are concerned that it may reduce the natural production of melatonin in the body, but short-term studies suggest no such effects .
Several studies have reported general symptoms, including dizziness, headache, nausea or agitation. However, these were equally common in the treatment and placebo groups and couldnt be attributed to melatonin .
Melatonin supplements are generally considered safe in the short-term, even when taken in very high doses. However, more research on its long-term safety is needed, especially in children .
A few mild side effects and drug interactions are discussed in the chapters below.
Summary Melatonin supplements are considered safe, and no studies have revealed any serious side effects to date. Yet, more research is needed to evaluate its long-term effects.
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Acil, M., Basgul, E., Celiker, V., Karagoz, A. H., Demir, B., and Aypar, U. Perioperative effects of melatonin and midazolam premedication on sedation, orientation, anxiety scores and psychomotor performance. Eur.J.Anaesthesiol. 2004 21:553-557. View abstract.
Acuna, C. D., Escames, G., Carazo, A., Leon, J., Khaldy, H., and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin, mitochondrial homeostasis and mitochondrial-related diseases. Curr.Top.Med Chem. 2002 2:133-151. View abstract.
Adams, J. D., Jr., Yang, J., Mishra, L. C., and Singh, B. B. Effects of ashwagandha in a rat model of stroke. Altern Ther Health Med 2002 8:18-19. View abstract.
Akmali, M., Ahmadi, R., and Vessal, M. Pre- and post-treatment of streptozocin administered rats with melatonin: effects on some hepatic enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. Arch.Iran Med. 2010 13:105-110. View abstract.
Al-Aama, T., Brymer, C., Gutmanis, I., Woolmore-Goodwin, S. M., Esbaugh, J., and Dasgupta, M. Melatonin decreases delirium in elderly patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Int.J.Geriatr.Psychiatry 2011 26:687-694. View abstract.
Aladag, M. A., Turkoz, Y., Parlakpinar, H., Ozen, H., Egri, M., and Unal, S. C. Melatonin ameliorates cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoidal haemorrhage correcting imbalance of nitric oxide levels in rats. Neurochem.Res. 2009 34:1935-1944. View abstract.
Bukowska, A. . Med.Pr 2011 62:425-434. View abstract.
No author. . Klin.Med. 2011 89:46-49. View abstract.
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When To Steer Clear
Certain people should be more cautious about melatonin use, particularly if it triggers a negative reaction, including those with:
- Chronic insomnia. Having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep that lasts a month or more shouldn’t be managed with melatonin, according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the American College of Physicians. These groups recommend other more proven remedies , noting that there is not enough evidence that melatonin is safe and effective for long-term use.
- Restless Legs Syndrome . The tingling or “creepy-crawly” feeling in the legs that often keeps people awake could be worsened by melatonin. The supplement can intensify RLS symptoms because it lowers the amount of dopamine in the brain, according to the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation. If you’ve been diagnosed with RLS or suspect that you have the condition, talk to your HCP about lifestyle changes or medications that could help.
- Dementia. This progressive cognitive deterioration is often associated with insomnia, which can tax both patients and their caregivers. But melatonin may do more harm than good among those with dementia since the condition causes people to metabolize the supplement more slowly, resulting in daytime drowsiness. In people with moderate or severe dementia, melatonin supplementation may increase the risk of falls, according to 2015 guidelines from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
If you’ve been drinking alcohol, it’s also not safe to take melatonin.
Causes And Risk Factors For Breathing Difficulties
Breathing difficulties, whether mild or severe, can be traced to conditions that cause abnormalities or blockages in the lungs or in your airways, which include the following, per the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute :
- Your mouth
- Your bronchial tubes or bronchi, and their branches
There are five common underlying conditions, according to the online Merck Manual:
- Asthma Asthma-related inflammation causes airways to spasm and narrow, making it harder to breathe deeply.
- COPD A hallmark of COPD, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, is difficulty pushing air out of your lungs.
- Heart Failure or Heart Disease If the heart cannot pump enough blood through the body, too little oxygen reaches your tissues, which can affect breathing.
- Being Out of Shape When your muscles and heart are weakened by inactivity, it can make breathing more difficult.
- Pneumonia Whether it is caused by bacteria or a virus , this type of lung infection can lead to inflammation of the respiratory airway, increased and thickened mucus, and ultimately, difficulty with air exchange in the lung air sacs , setting off a variety of other respiratory and systemic problems.
There are many other medical conditions that can lead to breathing difficulties:
Nonmedical situations may cause breathing difficulties, too:
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The Fda Statins And Shortness Of Breath:
There is nothing in the official prescribing information about this. A search of the medical literature, however, turned up cases of pleural effusions linked to drugs such as atorvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin and simvastatin .
We also discovered this:
Statin-induced lung injury is an uncommon but serious complication of statins .
Melatonin And Lipid Metabolism
Early experiments showed that treatment with melatonin can improve dyslipidemia . In patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, treatment with melatonin for 14 months significantly reduced levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol compared with controls treated with Essentiale . Treatment with melatonin for 2weeks significantly reduced free fatty acids compared with placebo in cigarette smokers . A study on aluminum-induced toxicity in a rat model found that melatonin protected against toxic dyslipidemia by alleviating the aluminum induced increase in total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, oxidized LDL and apolipoprotein B100 . In unpublished results, we have demonstrated that melatonin administration can improve lipid metabolism and reduce weight. Melatonin treatment reduced body weight, body fat, and waist circumference in obese patients with acanthosis nigricans. We also found that melatonin could decrease LDL and body weight in high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease mice. Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases , and melatonin’s beneficial effects on lipid metabolism may reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.
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Comprehensive Pulmonary Function Tests
Pulmonary function tests include blood gas evaluation, lung volume measurement and carbon monoxide diffusion in the lung , in addition to spirometry. Total lung capacity is reduced in persons with parenchymal restrictive disease, but is normal or increased in those who have obstructive disorders with air trapping.1 In a patient who has normal spirometry and lung volumes but a reduced DLCO, the differential diagnosis includes anemia, early interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary vascular disease. Patients with emphysema typically have low DLCO. In patients with bronchiectasis, dyspnea is more closely correlated with lung hyperinflation than with airflow obstruction parameters.29 Reduced maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures is evidence of neuromuscular causes of dyspnea.7
Therapies For Severe Cases
A person with severe COVID-19 may need supplemental oxygen or mechanical ventilation. The latter involves inserting a tube into a persons windpipe. The tube is connected to a machine called a ventilator that helps the person breathe.
Other treatments aim to help control the infection and address problems involving the blood and the functioning of other organs.
The American Lung Association say that doing breathing exercises can help make the lungs work more efficiently. This may help a person with a mild case of COVID-19 that causes shortness of breath.
Here are a few strategies to try:
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Too Much Melatonin Actually Can Keep You Awake
It’s important to consult a doctor before adding a melatonin supplement to your routine. You also want to check with them before increasing your dose, since taking too much can have a plethora of unwanted side effects. Failing to do this and jumping straight to a high dose can, in some cases, have the opposite of the desired effect and actually cause you to feel more awake as you lay in bed, trying to fall asleep .
In other cases, taking too much melatonin can cause headaches, nausea, dizziness, irritability, stomach cramps, diarrhea, and anxiety . And for some, a high dose of melatonin can affect blood pressure, causing it to dip . And there are more severe symptoms you should be on the lookout for: If you experience extremely high blood pressure, shortness of breath, or sudden chest pain, be sure to seek medical help.
Nocturnal Asthma And Children
Asthma is more common in children than in adults and is the most common chronic disease in children worldwide. Accurately diagnosing and treating nocturnal asthma in children is especially important because the effects of nocturnal asthma, like loss of sleep and daytime sleepiness, are associated with behavioral and developmental difficulties.
Unfortunately, nocturnal asthma often goes undiagnosed in children because they tend to underestimate or not report their nighttime symptoms. For this reason, its helpful for parents to monitor and report back to the doctor any concerning symptoms in children. These symptoms may include wheezing, disturbed sleep, daytime sleepiness, and difficulties concentrating at school.
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Shortness Of Breath In The Elderly
Elderly people tend to suffer from a shortness of breath, medically called dyspnea, a lot more often than younger people.
When a person gets older, their energy levels decrease and they have more and more ailments that bother than on an everyday basis, this is normal. Shortness of breath is one such problem that is fairly common in people who are over the age of 65. Even people who are otherwise healthy will experience a thickening of the heart muscle and stiffening of the arteries with age, which means the heart has to work harder to meet your needs. Shortness of breath is a common result.
Best Quit Smoking Resources
Stop smoking or vaping, if you do. Inhaling tobacco smoke is the major cause of lung cancer and COPD, according to the National Cancer Institute’s SmokeFree.gov website. Within two weeks of becoming tobacco-free, you could notice that youre breathing easier. The cilia will also begin coming back to life, boosting your ability to fight off colds and infections.
Stay hydrated. Taking in plenty of fluids helps keep the mucus in your respiratory system thin, so it can trap large particles that you breathe, says Varner. This helps your lungs cleanse themselves.
Be active. Like the rest of your body, vigorous activity gives your lungs a good workout, which helps expand their capacity, Varner says.
Lose weight if your body mass index is 30 or higher. Being significantly overweight or obese forces your heart and lungs to work harder, which can make breathing more difficult and aggravate conditions like COPD that are linked to shortness of breath.
Minimize your exposure to smog. Check daily air pollution forecasts in your area at AirNow.gov. Keep windows closed and limit your time spent outdoors when levels are high. A study of more than 300,000 people published in July 2019 in the European Respiratory Journal linked exposure to outdoor air pollution with decreased lung function and an increased risk of developing COPD.
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Theres Definitely Hope For Some Breathing Troubles
If youre short of breath for any of those reasons, easy relief is possible. Its safe, cheap, and almost fun to experiment with self-massage for trigger points. Results are hardly guaranteed, but its a sensible thing to try.
Anxiety is the toughest problem to beat, but anyone can benefit from trying.
These three issues may all get tangled up, each one complicating the others, but progress with one is also likely to help the others. Some simple and interesting ideas for self-treatment are suggested in this short article, plus links to much more information for those who want to delve.
What Should Elderly People Do When They Are Short Of Breath
Older adults experiencing dyspnea should seek medical attention. Their doctor will likely recommend spirometry, a full blood test, an exercise stress test, and even an echocardiogram as they find out what is causing the shortness of breath. Once a diagnosis has been made, steps can then be taken to better manage the shortness of breath and hopefully bring the person some relief.
How Are Breathing Difficulties Diagnosed
The first thing your doctor will do, explains Maxfield, is take a medical history that will include the following questions:
- When did your breathing difficulties start, and was the onset abrupt or gradual?
- How long have your breathing difficulties lasted?
- Did anything trigger your breathing difficulties or worsen them, such as allergens, extreme temperatures, or lying down?
- Have you experienced other symptoms? For example, dyspnea coupled with swelling in the feet and legs might indicate heart failure high fever would usually signal an infection and chest pain could be cardiac related or associated with a blood clot in the lung.
- What medications are you taking, and do you have a history of smoking, high blood pressure, lung or heart conditions or disorders, or risk factors for pulmonary embolism, such as recent surgery or long-distance travel?
Next, he says, your doctor will perform a physical exam, observing your breathing patterns, listening to your lungs and heart, and looking for fluid retention and signs of swelling.
Your doctor may also do these tests:
The diagnosis and treatment of dyspnea is sometimes made more difficult by the presence of more than one underlying health problem, which can happen often in older people.
Asthma Patients Cautioned About Melatonin
- National Jewish Medical And Research Center
- People with asthma should consider limiting the use of melatonin as a sleep aid, according to researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center. Pulmonologist Rand Sutherland, M.D., M.P.H., and his colleagues report in the September 2003 issue of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology that higher levels of melatonin were associated with an overnight loss of lung function in asthma patients.
People with asthma should consider limiting the use of melatonin as a sleep aid, according to researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center. Pulmonologist Rand Sutherland, M.D., M.P.H., and his colleagues report in the September 2003 issue of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology that higher levels of melatonin were associated with an overnight loss of lung function in asthma patients. Previous studies by the same group have shown that melatonin induces the release of chemicals that promote inflammation, a hallmark symptom of asthma.
“For patients whose asthma worsens at night, we found that higher levels of naturally occurring melatonin are associated with impaired lung function,” said Dr. Sutherland. “Those findings, on top of previous ones linking melatonin to inflammation, suggest that all patients with asthma should avoid using melatonin supplements until more is known about their safety.”
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