Stroke Prevention Anticoagulation And Left Atrial Appendage
How do we get our CHADS-VASC score?
Oussama Wazni, MD: You can use a calculator such as
gary h: If my ChadVas score were to indicate a stroke risk of say 3% in the next year, does that mean that I have a 30% chance of a stroke in the next decade?
Oussama Wazni, MD: Yes that is correct.
netmouse: 1. For ChadVas 2, standard of care is an anticoagulant. Do you decide otherwise if no family history, low burden, time without afib , good life style?2. Some EPs no longer consider gender. Is female, 70, score of 2, a reasonable candidate to stop the drug? 3. I had 1 afib event with racing heart 2 years ago. ER tests had very low potassium , history shows it is always in mid-range. Is it possible low potassium caused afib? And/or dehydration from the hot summer and/or an 80 mg corticosteroid shot about a month before? 4. After my 1 event, a 2-week monitor a year ago showed no issues. I am female, age range 65 to 74. No family history or other concerns. I am getting different advice. My EP wants me to stay on anticoagulant as it is standard of care, no data for people like me. 2 EPs say option is to stop, monitor daily with Kardia. Your opinion is?
Oussama Wazni, MD: based on current guidelines you would need to be on a blood thinner. Consider taking a low risk anticoagulant such as eliquiz
Indygirl4: Is it safe to just live with Afib and only take blood thinners?
Dangerous Interactions Could Occur
The supplement could also interfere with other important medications, including blood thinners, diabetes drugs, immune system-suppressing drugs, anti-seizure drugs and some contraceptives. If you’re taking any type of medication, it’s important to talk to your HCP before taking melatonin or any other dietary supplements.
Causes Of Leg Cramps At Night
Leg cramps can be distressing and painful. Experiencing pain during the night can disrupt sleep. The exact causes of nocturnal leg cramps are unknown. However, there are some factors that may increase the chance of experiencing leg cramps during the night.
Medications: Some medications, like diuretics, steroids, and antidepressants, are associated with nocturnal leg cramping. Talk to your doctor about any medications you are taking if you experience leg cramps during the night.
Pregnancy: Leg cramps are a common experience in pregnant women, although some professionals consider pregnancy-related leg cramps different from nocturnal leg cramps. Researchers are unsure if this leg cramping occurs due to pregnancy itself, or because of a lack of blood flow in the veins as a result of pregnancy. Magnesium supplementation has been shown to reduce leg cramping in pregnancy, but you should talk to your doctor before beginning any new supplements.
Dehydration: Not drinking enough water during the day can result in dehydration. Dehydration causes muscle weakness and cramping. Nocturnal leg cramps in particular are not associated with dehydration, but drinking water is still important. The exact amount of water you need to drink each day depends on your body weight, activity level, medications, and local climate.
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It Doesnt Always Work
The science is mixed when it comes to how well melatonin works for general sleep problems. It is mildly beneficial in the treatment of long-term insomnia or sleep disorders, says Dave Walker, RPh, pharmacist and medical advisory board member of the non-profit MedShadow Foundation that tracks medications and side effects. But if youre a night owl with delayed sleep phase disorder, a study in the journal Sleep does show taking melatonin may help you fall asleep at a more normal time.
Skeletal Muscle Structure And Function In Aging And Diseases
Skeletal muscular tissue is the most represented tissue in the human body and is essential for voluntary movements and postural maintenance . However, it has additional important roles such as thermal regulation, nutritional balance, glucose uptake, and endocrine activity .
Before understanding the progressive changes of skeletal muscle induced by aging and related diseases, it is necessary to focus on its structure and ultrastructure.
In adult mammals, skeletal muscle is composed by different cell typesmultinucleated myofibers, or myotubes, and satellite cellsbeneath the sarcolemma, able to regenerate surrounded by the epimysium . Myofibers are then collected in bundles surrounded by the perimysium layer. Finally, many bundles in different spatial orientation constitute the gross muscle mass fixed with a tendon to the skeleton . Moreover, fibroblasts, adipocytes, vessels, and neuromuscular junctions complete the complex muscle anatomy .
Aging inevitably affects skeletal muscle structure and function in mammalians . Both quality and strength of muscle fibers progressively change in the elderly, affecting mobility and independence. Altered excitationcontraction coupling together with abnormal calcium flux and sarcoplasmic reticulum organization in myofibers induce weakness and loss of intrinsic force in old muscles .
Other age-related skeletal muscle diseases are crush injury, a common consequence of fall, chronic fibromyalgia, and altered microvascular perfusion.
What Is A Muscle Cramp
A muscle cramp happens when a muscle contracts suddenly and uncontrollably. These cramps, also called muscle spasms or charley horses, can occur in one or more muscles at a time. They can be painful, but they usually only last from a few seconds to 15 minutes.
Muscle cramps can be a symptom of many different medical issues. They are often associated with muscle strain, but they can also be a sign of medical conditions such as circulation problems and liver disease.
Muscle cramps can interfere with your daily activities. Because they often happen at night, they can affect your sleep. As a result, they may reduce your quality of life. But in most cases, muscle cramps are not serious.
When To Seek Medical Attention
Though they may seem like a minor nuisance, leg cramps can be seriously debilitating. Schedule an appointment to see your doctor if your nighttime leg cramps:
- lead to shooting pain, tingling or numbness
- cause severe pain
- were brought on by an injury or exposure to toxin
- lead to muscle atrophy or muscle weakness
Melatonin And Mood Disorders
The biological melanin clock is especially important in the aetiology of seasonal affective disorder in which psychological depression, for which bright light is a very effective treatment. Forty winter depressives were treated for a week with bright light or dawn simulation . Dawn simulation was similarly effective to bright light in the treatment of winter depression. Patients with more severe depression tended to report greater improvement with bright light in such cases, this would outweigh the non-clinical advantages of dawn simulation.
In persons with SAD depressive symptoms in the evening, these are related to abnormal patterns of plasma melatonin which are too high at night. In a 22-day design, 22 patients suffering from a major depression with a seasonal pattern of SAD were given light treatment for 2 weeks on workdays. Therapy to advance the onset of blood melatonin rise improved sleep, alertness, and mood
How To Help Your Natural Melatonin Work
Although supplements may help, there are also other ways to boost your bodys natural melatonin. You can increase melatonin production by getting exposure to sunlight in the morning and afternoon, Shane says. Blue light from your computer or phone interferes with the brains production of melatonin, so stop using computer and phone one hour before bedtime, and stay at least six feet away from your television screen.
Lockley explains it might not be the level of melatonin itself that needs adjusting this varies between people. But rather, its the duration and timing of its release. In the hours before sleep, we want to reduce the intensity and the blue-content to help the brain think its night and induce sleep, he says. Turn lights low and follow a relaxing evening routine. In addition, Shane recommends a pre-bedtime snack of foods rich in melatonin, such as goji berries, walnuts, almonds, pineapple, bananas, and oranges. Next, find out 50 easy ways to sleep better.
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Is Your Medication On The List
Heres a list of medications that cause muscle spasms as a side effect:
- Diuretics, such as Lasix, Zaroxolyn, and Aldactone
- The Alzheimers medication Aricept
- The angina and high blood pressure medication Procardia
- The osteoporosis medication Evista
- The asthma medications Brethine, Symbicort, Proventil, Advair Diskus, and Ventolin
- The Parkinsons disease medication Tasmar
- Cholesterol medications, such as Crestor, Lipitor, Lescol, Pravachol, Mevacor, or Zocor
Of the above medications, two drug classes stand out as having the highest risk for leg cramps as a side effect. These include the asthma medications and the diuretics. The cholesterol medications are considered lower risk for causing muscle cramps and instead are more likely to cause muscle weakness, otherwise known as myopathy.
When To Avoid Melatonin
Melatonin might be natural, but the oral supplement can trigger side effects and interact with certain drugs, so consult your doctor first.
Medication that could interact with the supplement includes anticoagulation drugs, anticonvulsants, blood pressure medication, diabetes medication, immunosuppressants, and depressants.
You should also avoid melatonin if you have an autoimmune disease . The supplement can stimulate your immune system, potentially triggering a flare.
Also, exercise caution if youre pregnant. The occasional short-term use of melatonin might be safe during pregnancy and while breastfeeding, but the effects on an unborn or nursing baby are unclear, so only take the supplement under a doctors supervision.
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The Future Of Chronic Pain Treatment
Until recently, many doctors have treated chronic pain with opiate pain medications that may have unpleasant side effects and be addictive. New chronobiology research, however, is allowing health care workers to begin treating some of the causes of this pain. Identifying and treating the root cause of disease is always preferable to simply masking it.
Melatonin, like many hormones, plays multiple roles in the human body. Its role in pain modulation and potential in the treatment of chronic pain disorders is a new discovery that offers hope for people who struggle living with FMS and other pain syndromes. Maintaining a healthy circadian rhythm may be more important to whole body health than we previously could have imagined.
How To Treat Sleep Leg Cramps
Effective treatments for sleep-related leg cramps still have not been developed. A daily exercise program that involves stretching of the leg muscles may be the best way for you to prevent and relieve leg cramps. Staying hydrated is also important. Massage or a hot shower before bed might be helpful, as well as untucking the sheets before getting under the covers.
The Different Types Of Atrial Fibrillation
There are at least five types of AFib that are characterized based on their duration and underlying reasons.
- Paroxysmal fibrillation is when a persons heart returns to normal with or without intervention within a week after its start. Individuals with this type of AFib may experience episodes a few times each year or daily.
- Persistent AFib can be defined as an abnormal rhythm of the heart that lasts more than a week. This variant of atrial fibrillation does not return to normal without treatment.
- Long-standing AFib is a type of atrial fibrillation wherein the heart is continuously in an erratic rhythm, lasting more than twelve months.
- Permanent AFib happens when the disorder lasts indefinitely, with the patient and doctor deciding not to continue its treatment.
- Nonvalvular AFib is the form of AFib that is not caused by an issue with the heart valve.
The Supplement That Will Build Your Muscles And Help You Sleep Deeper
It puts sleep trouble to bed and makes you a fitter man come morning
Work and workouts too often conspire to sabotage your sleep. Weve all been there: putting in a late shift to hit a deadline, then racking up some reps before bedtime. But rather than knocking you out, this overexertion can leave you buzzing, which plays havoc with your health and progress.
Not only is missing out on Zs linked to heart trouble, but deep sleep is also when your body floods your system with the restorative hormones HGH and testosterone. Thankfully, theres a pill for that, and it actually works. Scientists at Manouba University have found that melatonin will put sleep trouble to bed and make you a fitter man come morning.
Athletes who popped 10mg of melatonin after an intensive 8pm training session slept 25 minutes longer on average than a placebo group. But the Tunisian researchers found that the benefits went well beyond a better rest.
When members of the study group were subjected to a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test after waking, the supplement helped them to outperform their own scores from the previous night by 82m.
Melatonin is not available over the counter in the UK, and we suggest consulting your doctor before use and sourcing it only for the nights you really need it. For everyday benefits, a pre-bed snack of pineapple and banana naturally boosts melatonin by 300%.
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Does Melatonin Help You Go To Sleep
Learn what melatonin can and cannot do for you.
Ever wonder how much sleep you actually need to function? Even though youve probably heard eight hours, many adults can get by with as little as seven hours per night, according to the National Sleep Foundation .
Unfortunately, sleep doesnt come easily for everyone. And if you spend more time staring at the ceiling than dreaming, you might turn to supplements like melatonin to enjoy some shut-eye.
Melatonin is a hormone thats naturally produced in your body and secreted by the pineal gland. This hormone is responsible for regulating sleep patterns, so its a popular go-to supplement for people who need to improve the quality of their sleep.
Melatonin wont make you sleepy, per se. Rather, it helps regulate your bodys circadian clock. In plain English, this hormone lets your body know when its time to go to sleep and when its time to wake up.
Melatonin is released into your bloodstream. As your level of melatonin rises, you begin to feel sleepy. This typically takes place around 9 p.m.
If your body doesnt produce enough melatonin, supplementation might help you sleep better. But dont get too excited too quickly. There are a few things you need to know about melatonin.
Precautions Before Taking Melatonin
Talk to your healthcare provider about melatonin supplementation and consider the following precautions:
- Depression: Some studies have indicated that melatonin might worsen depression symptoms in some people.
- Drug interactions: Melatonin might interact with certain prescribed medications.
- Pregnancy: People who are pregnant or nursing should not take melatonin.
- Side effects: Taking high doses of melatonin have been associated with daytime sleepiness, hyperprolactinemia, hypothermia, and impaired physical performance.
Side Effects Of Melatonin: 8 Groups Should Avoid Taking Melatonin
September 28, 2020// by Terry Cralle//
Melatonin, also known as the hormone of darkness is a hormone responsible for the regulation of your sleep-wake cycle. However, promoting and regulating sleep is only one of its physiological functions.
This hormone plays an important role in bodily functions, the functions of organs like the kidney or liver, and helps regulate blood pressure and cardiovascular issues. Melatonin is also shown useful in cases of tumors and cancers, where it prevents oxidative stress to promote the growth of cancerous cells.
Now, all of this sounds rather impressive, and sure enough, because melatonin is a naturally produced hormone coming from the very brain, no one would suspect it harmful. However, melatonin supplements, on the other hand, are raising some eyebrows in the medical community.
Over the past few years, melatonin supplements have been studied concerning their possible side effects. Turns out, melatonin intake can cause a dozen of adverse effects, which can pose a long-term danger. In the following paragraphs, well take a look at the major side effects, every melatonin producing company would hide from you. So, lets get started!
Types And Causes Of Muscles Cramps
There are four different forms of skeletal muscle cramping. True cramps, tetany, contractures, and dystonic cramps are among them. Cramps are classified based on their causes and which muscle groups they impact.
Part or all of a single muscle or a collection of muscles that act together, such as the muscles that flex multiple neighboring fingers or the leg muscles, are involved in true cramps. True cramps are produced by hyperexcitability of the nerves that activate the muscles, according to most experts. Skeletal muscle cramps are the most prevalent type of skeletal muscle cramp. True cramps can develop in a variety of situations, as listed below.
Following an injury, such as a broken bone, persistent muscle spasm may occur as a defensive mechanism. The spasm tends to limit movement and stabilize the injured area in this case. Muscle spasms can be caused by a single injury to the muscle.
True cramps are frequently related to strong muscle exertion and exhaustion in sports or with unaccustomed activities. These pains might occur during the exercise or afterward, sometimes for several hours.
Muscle fatigue from sitting or resting in an awkward position for an extended amount of time, or any repetitive use, can also trigger cramps. When older persons engage in severe or strenuous physical activity, they are at risk of cramping.
Low Calcium or Magnesium Levels in the Blood
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