Friday, April 19, 2024

High Blood Pressure And Hormones

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Who Should Be Tested For Adrenal Tumor As Cause Of High Blood Pressure

Adrenal Causes of High Blood Pressure | Masha Livhits, MD | UCLAMDChat
  • Resistant hypertension
  • Hypertension requiring two or more blood pressure medications
  • Hypertension requiring being on Spironolactone , Eplerenone or Amiloride
  • Hypertension of any grade, without known risk factors such as age, smoking. kidney problems, diabetes, obesity, etc
  • Hypertension at a young age
  • Hypertension with low blood potassium .
  • Hypertension with an adrenal incidentaloma
  • Hypertension and sleep apnea
  • Hypertension and a family history of early-onset hypertension or stroke at a young age
  • Hypertension in a family with any family member with an adrenal tumor
  • Hypertension that is episodic – it comes and goes

Important to know! There are other causes of secondary hypertension not related to the adrenal gland. One such disease is primary hyperparathyroidism, due to one or more parathyroid tumors. Please review parathyroid glands, hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid surgery at our sister page . Endocrine hypertension can also be caused by diseases of the thyroid gland. Learn about thyroid tumors, thyroid cancers, and thyroid surgery here. Other rarer causes of secondary hypertension include those related to changes in the major blood vessels in your body.

High Blood Pressure After Pregnancy

For most women, preeclampsia and gestational hypertension resolve within 12 weeks of labor or a C-section. Women diagnosed with chronic hypertension may require ongoing monitoring and treatment for high blood pressure.

Sometimes, in addition to blood pressure medication, anti-seizure medications and blood thinners are necessary for women with postpartum preeclampsia. If you have chronic hypertension, your doctor will likely discuss making healthy lifestyle changes to complement the actions of blood pressure medication.If youre nursing, notify your doctor so they can prescribe a medication that is safe for your baby.

High Blood Pressure Caused By Adrenal Tumors

Can high blood pressure be cured? YES. Since many patients with high blood presure have an adrenal tumor as the cause, yes, removing the adrenal tumor can improve and often completely cure the high blood pressure. Learn about how a short Mini Back Scope Scope Adrenalectomy operation can potentially cure you of high blood pressure and thereby decrease your chance of stroke, heart attack, and sudden death.

Classification of Types of Hypertension

Type
Over 180 Over 110

Primary Hypertension. In most cases, high blood pressure is due to what we call “primary hypertension”. This means that there is no underlying cause of the high blood pressure. This is sometimes also called “essential hypertension”. Primary hypertension is the most common form of high blood pressure and it can only be treated with medications and life-style modifications .

Secondary Hypertension. Secondary hypertension means that there is an identifiable cause that is underlying the high blood pressure. In other words, patients with secondary hypertension have something causing it–and often this is an adrenal tumor. In these cases, hypertension can be cured, often with a safe and straightforward Mini Back Scope Scope Adrenalectomy This is why it is very important for doctors to not just treat the high blood pressure with medications without figuring out why the patient has high blood pressure in the first place.

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Weill Cornell Researcher Shows How Progesterone Is Not Just Sex Hormone But Blood Pressure Hormone

Study May Shed New Light on Role of Female Hormones in Cardiovascular Protection

NEW YORK

Research from Weill Medical College of Cornell University and other institutions provides new evidence that the sex steroid hormone progesterone is also a vasoactive hormone that directly affects blood vessels. This finding sheds light on both the drop in blood pressure that usually accompanies pregnancy and the rise in blood pressure that often occurs in women after menopause . It may also focus and sharpen the debate on the value of female hormones in long-term cardiovascular protection.

The study, published in the January issue of Hypertension, is a collaboration of scientists from the University of Palermo, Italy the University of Alberta, Canada and New York Weill Cornell Medical Center.

As explained by senior author Dr. Lawrence M. Resnick, Professor of Medicine at the Hypertension Center of Weill Cornell, hormones such as progesterone have previously been thought of primarily in terms of their most obvious reproductive function. Progesterone is produced by the ovaries in the second half of the menstrual cycle, after the release of the egg, to help prepare the uterus to receive and nurture the fertilized egg. Indeed, the highest levels of this hormone in the body are observed during pregnancy.

High Blood Pressure In Mid

What Causes High Blood Pressure?

An increase in blood pressure that occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy is called gestational hypertension. Your doctor may diagnose you with hypertension if:

  • Your systolic blood pressure is 140 mm Hg or higher

And/or

  • Your diastolic blood pressure is 90 mm Hg or higher

If you develop gestational hypertension, your doctor will monitor you closely for signs of preeclampsia.

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Effects Of Estradiol On Vascular Tone

Functional estrogen receptors of the and subtypes are expressed in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells , and it is well established that estradiol can cause vasodilation by both ER-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms. Acute administration of estradiol in vitro and in vivo induces rapid dilation of coronary arteries of cholesterol-fed ovariectomized animals . Exogenous estradiol also dilates coronary and brachial arteries in postmenopausal women and men . Long-term treatment with estradiol abrogates the vasoconstrictor effects of U46619 , phenylepinephrine, 5-HT, calcium, potassium and acetylcholine on vascular tissues such as aortic rings and coronary arteries . Compared with premenopausal women, vasodilator effects of estradiol are decreased in postmenopausal women and are normalized by estrogen replacement therapy . The vasodilator effect of estradiol replacement therapy is diminished by co-administration of synthetic progestins such as medroxyprogesterone and cyproterone acetate .

In summary, estradiol is a vasodilator that decreases vascular resistance by multiple mechanisms. Increased production of NO plays a prominent role, and increased synthesis of other endogenous vasodilators, decreased synthesis of endogenous vasoconstrictors and activation of K+ channels also contribute to the vasodilatory actions of estradiol.

Effects Of Estradiol On The Heart

Hypertension is importantly associated with a remodeling process that leads to cardiac hypertrophy and abnormal growth and function of cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes. Cardiac fibroblasts contribute to pathological changes in the hypertensive heart by proliferating, depositing extracellular proteins and replacing myocytes with fibrotic scar tissue. Estradiol and progesterone inhibit mitogen-induced proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts and extracellular matrix synthesis by cardiac fibroblasts , suggesting that these sex hormones may attenuate the structural changes in the heart that are usually associated with hypertension. The direct effects of estradiol on the heart may be amplified by estradiol-induced changes in circulating and local factors such as Ang II, endothelin, NO, prostacyclin, adenosine and bradykinin.

Female sex hormones have other protective effects on cardiac myocytes. For instance, apoptosis causes loss of cardiac myocytes in heart failure , and estradiol prevents programmed cell death in cardiac myocytes . In addition, estradiol and progesterone, but not testosterone, upregulate the expression of heat shock factor-1, and overexpression of this factor attenuates cardiac damage . Other protective mechanisms induced by estradiol in cardiac myocytes include induction of NO synthesis , reduction in L-type calcium channel current and density and inhibition of K+ currents .

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Why Does The Adrenal Gland Secrete Excess Hormones

The causes of excess aldosterone secretion are not very clear. Some studies link it to the genetics of an individual, while others connect it to excessive cell growth in the adrenal gland, something like a tumour.5 Although excess aldosterone is a rare cause of hypertension, the ex-president of the Endocrine Society is now advising healthcare providers to screen people with hypertension for excess aldosterone.2

Unrecognized Hormonal Condition May Be Contributing To High Blood Pressure

Part I – Regulation of Blood Pressure (Hormones)

The hormone aldosterone may be a common and unrecognized contributor to high blood pressure, a leading cause of heart disease and stroke, researchers are reporting. Their study points to a possible way to lower hypertension using existing medicines that block aldosterone and may lead to new screening approaches for the hormonal condition.Primary aldosteronism is a condition where the adrenal glands produce too much of the hormone aldosterone. It causes the body to retain sodium and lose potassium, which contributes to a spike in blood pressure. Primary aldosteronism has traditionally been considered to be an uncommon cause of hypertension, but the findings of this study show that it is much more common than previously recognized.Researchers studied 1,015 patients at four U.S. hospitals to determine the prevalence of excess aldosterone production and primary aldosteronism. Some had normal blood pressure while others had varying degrees of hypertension. The researchers found that excess aldosterone production paralleled the severity of blood pressure. Among people with normal blood pressure, 11% had aldosteronism. For people with more severe hypertension, the rate was 22%. The study, funded in part by NHLBI, appeared in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Can Hormone Imbalance Be The Cause Of Hypertension

Its a cold and rainy afternoon, and you are working calmly at your desk. You start to experience a throbbing headache and profuse sweating. No, your boss hasnt asked you to send in 20 completed project files by the end of the day. Still, your head feels fuzzy. You begin to recollect your entire days schedule, wondering what could be causing it. Then it hits you: its your hypertension pill. You forgot to take the new pill your doctor recently recommended. You rush to take your medicine and wait to feel better.

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is often described as a silent killer. It refers to the rise in the pressure that blood exerts on the walls of your arteries.1 You never expected to be diagnosed with hypertension. You took care of all the known causes you maintained a healthy lifestyle and healthy body weight, and did not drink or smoke. So, what could be the reason for this diagnosis?

Effects Of Estrogens On Blood Pressure

Cross sectional , but not longitudinal , studies show a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure following the onset of menopause. Staessen et al. reported a four-fold increase in the incidence of hypertension in postmenopausal women . In a subsequent prospective evaluation of blood pressure in women who were premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal, the authors reported that postmenopausal women had a higher systolic blood pressure compared with premenopausal or perimenopausal women . Also, the rise in systolic blood pressure per decade was 5 mmHg greater in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women . Because menopause is associated with decreased synthesis of estradiol, it is likely that changes in blood pressure induced by menopause may be due in part to reductions in estradiol production.

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Effects Of Progestins On Vascular Growth

Similar to estradiol, progesterone inhibits mitogen induced growth and proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts , vascular smooth muscle cells and glomerular mesangial cells , which contribute to the vascular and glomerular remodeling associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis. Little is know regarding the effects of synthetic progestins on vascular growth.

Effects Of Estradiol On The Sympathetic Nervous System

What is the effect of ADH on blood pressure?

In 12 perimenopausal women randomized to receive estradiol valerate or placebo , Sudhir et al. demonstrated that estrogen supplementation decreases norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction and total body norepinephrine spillover. Vogpatanasin et al. recently conducted a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study in 12 normotensive postmenopausal women who were treated for 8 weeks with either transdermal estradiol, oral conjugated estrogens or placebo. Measured parameters included 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and sympathetic nerve discharge. Transdermal estradiol, but not conjugated estrogens, decreased sympathetic nerve discharge and blood pressure. Hunt et al. examined the effects of conjugated estrogens administered for 6 months to 11 healthy, postmenopausal women on baroreflex function. In this study, conjugated estrogens did not affect blood pressure or cardiac-vagal baroreflex gain, but significantly increased sympathetic baroreflex gain. The effects of estrogen on sympathetic baroreflex reflexes are also supported by two other studies in postmenopausal women . Moreover, in menopausal women, acute administration of estradiol and progesterone attenuated mental stress-induced cardiovascular responses and increases in plasma catecholamines , and muscle sympathetic nerve activity measured by microneurography is reduced in women compared with age-matched men .

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How Is Hyperaldosteronism Diagnosed

A healthcare provider will diagnose hyperaldosteronism with blood tests. However, many people never have hyperaldosteronism diagnosed because several conditions and risk factors can cause high blood pressure.

General signs of hyperaldosteronism include medication-resistant high blood pressure and the following results of an electrolyte blood panel:

  • Mildly high sodium level .
  • Mildly low magnesium level .

If your healthcare provider thinks you might have hyperaldosteronism based on these signs and your symptoms, theyll likely order one of two blood tests: plasma renin concentration or plasma renin activity .

If you have primary hyperaldosteronism, your PRC and PRA levels will be lower than normal. In secondary hyperaldosteronism, the levels will be higher than normal.

You may also need an aldosterone suppression test. This test involves consuming a certain amount of sodium orally or through an IV over a certain amount of time. Youll then provide urine samples over a 24-hour period so that a laboratory can measure the amount of aldosterone in your pee.

If these tests confirm you have hyperaldosteronism, your provider will order additional tests to determine the cause. For example, they may recommend an imaging test such as a CT scan to check for a tumor that could be causing hyperaldosteronism.

High Blood Pressure Before Pregnancy

Women who have high blood pressure before pregnancy may worry about whether they can safely have a baby. Having high blood pressure prior to pregnancy does increase the risk of pregnancy-related health complications. However, the condition shouldnt prevent someone from getting pregnant.

If you plan to become pregnant, work with your primary care provider to get your blood pressure levels under control with medication that is safe to use during pregnancy. Make healthy lifestyle changes ahead of time to help keep your blood pressure in check. Once you become pregnant, your doctor will likely want you to monitor your blood pressure at home and have regular checkups.

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High Blood Pressure In Early Pregnancy

High blood pressure that occurs in early pregnancy is usually considered chronic hypertension. Often, women who develop high blood pressure before the 20th week of pregnancy most likely had hypertension prior to pregnancy and didnt know.

Blood pressure levels sometimes decline during the first half of pregnancy, so doctors may closely monitor you at first. If levels dont fall or they become higher, your doctor may prescribe a blood pressure medication that is safe for pregnant women.

High Blood Pressure & Hormones

Mayo Clinic Minute: The estrogen and blood pressure connection

High blood pressure is a condition that nearly 68 million Americans face and about 20% of them do not even know they have it. In order for your body to function properly, your circulatory system needs to carry out oxygenated blood throughout your tissues, organs, and entire body. And the heart helps build pressure to pump this blood through tube-shaped blood vessels, like the arteries, veins, and capillaries.

When stress levels increase, blood pressure levels can start to rise. This results in heart and blood vessels working overtime and not being as efficient. With time, the deterioration of high blood pressure can cause damage to the delicate tissues inside the arteries. Then, bad cholesterol starts to build up plaque along the tears of the artery walls. When this plaque continues to increase the arteries become narrower and raise the blood pressure even more.

This process is continuously compromised and is reinforced with unhealthy habits. This condition can cause so much damage without a person even knowing. And ultimately, high blood pressure can result in a heart attack or stroke. Luckily, there are a few lifestyle habits that can be implemented into your daily routine today for a healthy heart.

De-Stress!!!

Stay Away from Sugar!

Find a Hormone Expert!

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Diagnosis Of Primary Aldosteronism

Primary aldosteronism is diagnosed by blood and urine tests, and/or a CT scan of the adrenal glands. In some cases adrenal vein sampling, which measures and compares hormones produced by each adrenal gland, is needed.

Primary aldosteronism causes more injury to the heart and blood vessels than high blood pressure alone, so early diagnosis is important. Only one in 200 people with primary aldosteronism are diagnosed because many doctors do not screen for it.

The Endocrine Hypertension Service at our precinct, including Hudson Institute and Monash Health, offers Victorias only streamlined service for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism, in addition to an outreach program supporting general practitioners to facilitate increased primary aldosteronism testing in the community.

Effects Of Androgens On Cardiac Mechanisms

Testosterone and its metabolite dihydrotestosterone induce cardiac hypertrophy in part by activating androgen receptors that are expressed in cardiac myocytes . In baroreceptor-denervated rats, left ventricular hypertrophy is gender-dependent estradiol inhibits, whereas testosterone stimulates, cardiac hypertrophy . Moreover, in vitro studies provide evidence that androgens induce hypertrophic growth in cultured myocytes , suggesting that the growth promoting effect is direct. The hypertrophic effects of DHT, but not testosterone, are associated with increased synthesis of atrial natriuretic peptide , suggesting that these androgens may induce hypertrophy via different mechanisms.

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What Causes These Changes

People who are going through menopause experience a significant drop in the hormone estrogen. This hormone has a beneficial effect on blood pressure.

Firstly, estrogen has a vasodilative effect, meaning it helps promote blood flow by keeping the blood vessels open. Secondly, estrogen helps keep cholesterol levels low, and this helps prevent the narrowing and hardening of the arteries due to cholesterol deposits or plaques. As such, a person experiencing decreased estrogen levels as a result of menopause may be at increased risk of developing hypertension.

People who are going through menopause may also experience weight gain. Being 20 pounds or more overweight can increase the risk of high blood pressure, so menopause can inadvertently contribute to this risk.

According to a 2014 review, some studies have shown that people who have experienced menopause are more sensitive to salt than those who have yet to go through menopause. Sensitivity to salt can mean that there is excess salt in the bloodstream. Excess salt increases fluid retention, and this increases blood pressure.

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