Immune System And Inflammation
Testosterone deficiency is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and mortality, which are also sequelae of chronic inflammation. Testosterone plasma concentration inversely correlates to multiple biomarkers of inflammation including CRP, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, TNF alpha and endotoxin concentration, as well as leukocyte count. As demonstrated by a meta-analysis, substitution therapy with testosterone results in a significant reduction of inflammatory markers. These effects are mediated by different mechanisms with synergistic action. In androgen-deficient men with concomitant autoimmune thyroiditis, substitution therapy with testosterone leads to a decrease in thyroid autoantibody titres and an increase in thyroid’s secretory capacity .
Testosterone is used as a medication for the treatment of male hypogonadism, gender dysphoria, and certain types of breast cancer. This is known as hormone replacement therapy or testosterone replacement therapy , which maintains serum testosterone levels in the normal range. has led to interest in androgen replacement therapy. It is unclear if the use of testosterone for low levels due to aging is beneficial or harmful.
Hormones Of The Digestive System
In vertebrates, the muscular and secretory activities of the alimentary canal and its associated glands are regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. The hormones constitute a self-contained complex in which the digestive hormones regulate the system that produces them, functioning largely independent of the rest of the endocrine system.
The functions of digestive hormones are best understood in mammals, in whom at least six are well characterized. Three well-known digestive hormones are gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin . Other digestive hormones include ghrelin, motilin, and gastric inhibitory peptide.
When food enters the stomach, the wall of its pyloric end releases gastrin, which promotes the flow of acid from the gastric glands in the stomach. These glands also release pepsinogen, which is the inactive form of the protein-digesting enzymepepsin, but this process is primarily under nervous control. The entry of the acidified stomach contents into the first part of the small intestine releases secretin and cholecystokinin. Secretin evokes the discharge of fluid and bicarbonate ions from the pancreas and promotes the secretion of bile from the liver . Cholecystokinin, so-called because its two main actions were formerly attributed to two separate hormones, evokes the release of enzymes from the pancreas and causes contraction of the gallbladder , thereby promoting the entry of bile into the duodenum.
Control Hormones Fsh & Lh
Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone , production begins in the brain. The release of another hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone, or GnRH for short, from the hypothalamus, stimulates the production of LH and FSH from the pituitary gland.
FSH is produced in both men and women. In men, the production of FSH is controlled by the circulating levels of testosterone that is produced by the testes. FSH is important for the production and maintenance of sperm .
LH travels from the pituitary gland to the testes via the bloodstream and is responsible for stimulating the testicles to make testosterone.
For this reason measuring testosterone alone does not give a full picture of a mans hormone health. Measuring any hormone in isolation, without considering the control and regulating hormones cannot give insights into the function of the hormone network, or identify any areas why suboptimal function may be occurring.
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The Functions Of Your Hormones: A Glossary
Your body is full of hormones. Heres how they function, the most common types, and which organs keep them moving through your endocrine system.
How Hormones Keep Your Body Functioning
Spend any time trying to decide between birth control options and youll be bombarded with information about the hormones. These bodily chemicals play a key role in regulating the menstrual cycle and ovulation, and many birth control methods today rely on them to prevent pregnancies.
But there are far more hormones than birth control and progesterone. Some of them are well known, like adrenaline with its fight-or-flight response. But for the rest of the over 50 human hormones, most of us know surprisingly little about them. For example, did you know that serotonin one of our so-called happy hormones is almost exclusively made in the gut, not the brain? Whether youre awake or asleep, hungry or stressed, your hormones are hard at work keeping your body in rhythm.
Hippocampus Response To Stressors
Twenty-one days of chronic restraint stress causes apical dendrites of CA3 neurons to retract these changes do not occur after CRS in female rats.65
Female and male rats show opposite effects of chronic stress on hippocampal-dependent memory, with males showing impairment and females showing enhancement or no effect.66
Exposure of male and female rats to restraint plus intermittent tail shock yields opposite effects on classical eyeblink conditioning, inhibiting it in females and enhancing it in males in females, this effect is abolished by ovariectomy and is therefore estrogen dependent.67,68 A morphological correlate of this in the hippocampus: acute stress inhibits estrogen-dependent spine formation in CA1 neurons of the hippocampus, whereas the same acute stressors enhance spine density in male CA1 neurons, possibly by increasing testosterone secretion upon which spine formation in the male CA1 is dependent.68
Neonatal masculinization of females makes them respond positively, like genetic males, to shock stressor.68 Moreover, in females, depending on reproductive status and previous experience, the negative stress effect is altered, eg, it is absent in mothers and virgin females with experience with infants.69
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Whats The Male Reproductive System
The male reproductive system includes a group of organs that make up a mans reproductive and urinary system. These organs do the following jobs within your body:
- They discharge sperm into the female reproductive tract.
- They produce and secrete male sex hormones.
The male reproductive system is made up of internal and external parts. Together, these organs help you urinate , have sexual intercourse and make children.
Prohormone Supplements And Heart Disease
Prohormones are a variety of steroid. They are often used to support weight loss and muscle-building.
A number of prohormone supplements are marketed at men to treat low testosterone levels. Such supplements can include dehydroepiandrosterone , and the herbal product Tribulus terrestris. However, a bill was passed in 2014 banning designer anabolic steroids.
Legal variants have emerged since. However, there is little, if any, research to indicate that these prohormone supplements affect testosterone levels. Research from 2016 did not find any evidence that Tribulus terrestris, for example, can increase testosterone levels.
Such remedies . The law does not require herbal supplements to be proven safe before sale, so caution is advised.
The potential side effects of prohormones plus their unproven clinical benefits make them a poor, possibly dangerous choice for boosting testosterone.
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Important Hormones And How They Help You Function
Hormones are chemical messengers that use your bloodstream to travel throughout your body to your tissues and organs. Did you know that your body houses 50 different types of hormones? They control a number of functions including metabolism, reproduction, growth, mood, and sexual health.
If your body is producing too little or too much of a hormone, it can make you very ill and set you up for a number of serious health problems. At The Well for Health in Davidson, North Carolina, our dedicated team of holistically-minded practitioners works with you to identify and resolve hormone problems. Lets take a closer look at five important hormones and how they help you function well.
List Of Important Hormones And Their Functions
Important Hormones and their Functions:
|Regulates tissue and bone growth.|
|ACTH||Controls structure and functioning of the adrenal cortex, especially secretions of gluco-corticoids and sex-corticoids.|
|FSH or Gametokinetic Factor||Stimulates spermatogenesis in testes of male, maturation of Graafian or ovarian follicles in ovaries and secretion of estrogen in females.|
|TSH||Stimulates thyroid to make thyroxine.|
|Oxytocin||Helps the uterus to contract during the childbirth.|
|ADH or Vasopressin or Pitressin||Controls the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidney .|
|Thyroid||Thyroxine||Regulates the rate of growth and metabolism. Production of too little of this hormone causes overweight and sluggishness. Too much of it leads to thinness and overactivity.|
|Adrenal||Cortisone||Produced by cortex of this gland. Aids in the conversion of proteins to sugar. The adrenal cortex itself is stimulated by the pituitary.|
|Pancreas||Insulin||Regulates sugar metabolism. Too little insulin leads to a high sugar level in blood and weakness- a condition called diabetes.|
|Ovary||Development of secondary sexual characters such as the development of breasts in females.|
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What Is The Endocrine System
Endocrine systems, also referred to as hormone systems, are found in all mammals, birds, fish, and many other types of living organisms. They are made up of:
- Glands located throughout the body
- Hormones that are made by the glands and released into the bloodstream or the fluid surrounding cells and
- Receptors in various organs and tissues that recognize and respond to the hormones.
Learn more about endocrine systems:
Why Is The Brain Important For Male Reproduction
The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus, located at the base of your brain, control the production of your male hormones and sperm. The hypothalamus makes gonadotropin-releasing hormone , which controls the release of other hormones from your pituitary gland. The hormones from the pituitary travel through your blood to make changes in your testicles.
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Side Effects Of Treatment Of Androgen Deficiency
Once testosterone levels are restored to the normal range, side effects of testosterone replacement therapy are not common. Some of the possible side effects include:
- mood changes and increased aggression
- male pattern baldness
- Snyder PJ, Bhasin S, Cunningham GR, et al. 2016. ‘Effects of testosterone treatment in older men‘, New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 374, pp. 611â624.
- Grech A, Breck J and Heidelbaugh J 2014 âAdverse effects of testosterone replacement therapy: an update on the evidence and controversyâ, Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, vol. 5, no. 5, pp.190â200.
- Sartorius G, Spasevska S, Idan A, et al. 2012, âSerum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol concentrations in older men self-reporting very good health: the healthy man studyâ, Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 755â763.
- Yeap BB, Grossmann M, McLachlan RI, et al. âEndocrine Society of Australia position statement on male hypogonadism : assessment and indications for testosterone therapyâ, Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 205, no. 4, pp.173â178.
- Yeap BB, Grossmann M, McLachlan RI, et al. 2016 âEndocrine Society of Australia position statement on male hypogonadism : treatment and therapeutic considerationsâ, Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 205, no.5, pp 228â231.
Treatment Of Androgen Deficiency
Treatment for proven androgen deficiency is based on testosterone replacement therapy. Testosterone is best administered by skin gels creams, or by injection .
If your testosterone deficiency is caused by your pituitary gland and you are also wishing to father a child, your doctor will probably recommend gonadotrophin injections, several times a week for many months, to stimulate both testosterone and sperm production.
Testosterone treatment is not recommended for men trying to have a child as it acts as a powerful contraceptive by suppressing the pituitary hormones that drive sperm production. If you are androgen deficient and you and your partner are trying to have a baby, see a fertility specialist.
If you are having testosterone replacement therapy you will have regular reviews with your doctor. How often you have these will depend on your age and other risk factors for prostate cancer.
Older men need to be checked for prostate cancer before testosterone replacement therapy can be started, because increased levels of testosterone could make unrecognised prostate cancer grow. However, testosterone replacement therapy is not thought to increase the risk of a new prostate cancer above that of the general population.
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After Childbirth And Breastfeeding
Once pregnancy ends, hormone levels start to fall immediately. They eventually reach pre-pregnancy levels.
A sudden, significant drop in estrogen and progesterone may be a contributing factor in the development of postpartum depression.
Breastfeeding lowers estrogen levels and can prevent ovulation. This isnt always the case, however, so youll still need birth control to prevent another pregnancy.
Hormones Of Gastrointestinal Tract
The endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract secretes four major peptide hormones
- Gastrin It acts on gastric glands and stimulates the secretion of hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen.
- Secretin It acts on exocrine pancreas and stimulates secretion of water and bicarbonate ions.
- Cholecystokinin It acts on both pancreas and gallbladder and stimulates secretion of pancreatic enzymes and bile juice respectively.
- Gastric inhibitory peptide Inhibits gastric secretion and motility.
Sexual Desire And Contraception
Estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone all play a role in female sexual desire also called libido and sexual functioning. Due to hormonal fluctuations, females are generally at the peak of sexual desire just before ovulation.
Theres generally less fluctuation in libido if youre using hormonal birth control methods, which affect hormone levels. Your libido may also fluctuate less after menopause.
Undergoing surgery to remove your adrenal glands or ovaries cuts down on testosterone production, which can cause a drop in your libido.
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Male And Female Sex Hormones
Reproductive hormones like estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone are sometimes called male and female sex hormones, but theyre found in every body.
, anyway? Or testosterone? Sex hormones are hormones communication chemicals in the body that play important roles in reproduction and other things, too. If youve been hearing all about sex hormones lately, or, well, ever and wondered what the deal is, youre in the right place. Were here to help explain what it really means that people call estrogen male and why you should care about these bodily chemicals in the first place. Onward!
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What Are The Parts Of The Endocrine System
While many parts of the body make hormones, the major glands that make up the endocrine system are the:
The pancreas is part of the endocrine system and the digestive system. That’s because it secretes hormones into the bloodstream, and makes and secretes enzymes into the digestive tract.
Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is in the lower central part of the brain. It links the endocrine system and nervous system. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus make chemicals that control the release of hormones secreted from the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus gathers information sensed by the brain and sends it to the pituitary. This information influences the hormones that the pituitary makes and releases.
Pituitary: The pituitary gland is at the base of the brain, and is no bigger than a pea. Despite its small size, the pituitary is often called the “master gland.” The hormones it makes control many other endocrine glands.
The pituitary gland makes many hormones, such as:
The pituitary also secretes endorphins , chemicals that act on the nervous system and reduce feelings of pain. The pituitary also secretes hormones that signal the reproductive organs to make sex hormones. The pituitary gland also controls and the menstrual cycle in women.
Thyroid hormones are important because they help kids’ and teens’ bones grow and develop, and they also play a role in the development of the brain and nervous system.
Male Reproductive Organs: Functions Problems And Treatment
The male reproductive system consists of a group of organs that work together to make a manâs reproductive and urinary system. Unlike the female body, most of the male reproductive organs are located outside the body. Male reproductive system functions include manufacturing and secreting male hormones and sperm. This article discusses the different types of male reproductive organs, their functions, as well as their problems and prevention.
How Does The Male Reproductive System Function
The entire male reproductive system is dependent on hormones, which are chemicals that regulate the activity of many different types of cells or organs. The primary hormones involved in the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone.
Follicle-stimulating hormone is necessary for sperm production , and luteinizing hormone stimulates the production of testosterone, which is also needed to make sperm. Testosterone is responsible for the development of male characteristics, including muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, bone mass, facial hair growth, voice change, and sex drive.
The Perils Of Too Much Testosterone
Having too much naturally-occurring testosterone is not a common problem among men. That may surprise you given what people might consider obvious evidence of testosterone excess: road rage, fighting among fathers at Little League games and sexual promiscuity.
Part of this may be due to the difficulty defining “normal” testosterone levels and “normal” behavior. Blood levels of testosterone vary dramatically over time and even during the course of a day. In addition, what may seem like a symptom of testosterone excess may actually be unrelated to this hormone.
In fact, most of what we know about abnormally high testosterone levels in men comes from athletes who use anabolic steroids, testosterone or related hormones to increase muscle mass and athletic performance.
Problems associated with abnormally high testosterone levels in men include:
- Low sperm counts, shrinking of the testicles and impotence
- Heart muscle damage and increased risk of heart attack
- Prostate enlargement with difficulty urinating
- Fluid retention with swelling of the legs and feet
- Weight gain, perhaps related in part to increased appetite
- High blood pressure and cholesterol
- Increased risk of blood clots
- Stunted growth in adolescents
- Uncharacteristically aggressive behavior
- Mood swings, euphoria, irritability, impaired judgment, delusions
Among women, perhaps the most common cause of a high testosterone level is polycystic ovary syndrome . This disease is common. It affects 6% to 10% of premenopausal women.
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